Will the baby be poisoned if he eats vitamin A and vitamin D every day?

Is it better for babies to supplement vitamin D or vitamin AD?

Vitamin A and vitamin D are two very important fat-soluble vitamins for the human body. Sufficient vitamin A and vitamin D have a positive effect on early childhood development and disease prevention. Insufficient or deficient conditions can also cause various hazards.

Supplements of vitamin A and vitamin D can not be less

Functional role of vitamin A

Sufficient vitamin A is very important for the development of dark vision of the eyes; in addition, vitamin A can promote growth and reproductive function, maintain and promote immune function, and affect hematopoiesis.

The dangers of vitamin A deficiency

When borderline vitamin A deficiency occurs, children may exhibit symptoms such as slowed growth, recurrent infections, and anemia. When vitamin A deficiency is severe, children may experience night blindness, dry eye syndrome, corneal ulcers, or even blindness, dry skin, and keratosis of hair follicles.

Functional role of vitamin D

Vitamin D is essential for fetal and childhood skeletal development, neuromuscular system, immune system, tissue cell differentiation and metabolism, and health.

The dangers of vitamin D deficiency

Insufficient vitamin D can affect body development, immunity, metabolism and other functions, and increase the risk of respiratory tract infection, intestinal inflammation, allergy and asthma. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorders and damage to bone health, leading to rickets, tetany, severe cases of laryngospasm, and even suffocation, leading to death.

Causes of vitamin A and vitamin D deficiency in children

inadequate perinatal storage

The mother suffers from severe malnutrition, liver and kidney disease, chronic diarrhea, and the newborn is premature (less than 37 weeks), twins, low birthweight (less than 2.5kg), etc., vitamin A, Vitamin D stores are significantly insufficient.

rapid growth

Infants and young children (0-3 years old) grow and develop rapidly, and their body systems and organs gradually mature, so they have a relatively large demand for vitamin A and vitamin D.  

Insufficient nutritional supply

Complementary food was added untimely and unreasonably, dietary nutrition was unbalanced, and outdoor activities were lacking.

effects of disease

 Infectious diseases, chronic gastrointestinal diseases, hepatobiliary system diseases, acute and chronic nephritis, hyperthyroidism and other diseases can affect the absorption or loss of vitamin A and vitamin D too much.

drug interference

Long-term use of cholestyramine, neomycin, anticonvulsants, antiepileptic drugs, glucocorticoids and other drugs can affect the absorption and metabolism of vitamin A and vitamin D.

How to prevent vitamin A and vitamin D deficiency

Prevention and treatment of vitamin A deficiency

·

Advocate breastfeeding, and supplement vitamin A1500-2000IU/d in time after birth, and continue to supplement until 3 years old.

·

It is recommended to follow the principle of supplementary food and let children eat more foods rich in vitamin A as soon as possible. Vitamin A is rich in animal foods (such as milk, eggs, animal offal), dark vegetables and fruits (pumpkins, carrots, broccoli, spinach, mangoes and oranges, etc.).

·

Children with recurrent respiratory infections, chronic diarrhea, iron deficiency anemia, and malnutrition should be supplemented with vitamin A2000IU/d daily to improve immunity and help treat and prevent diseases.

·

Children with vitamin A deficiency can take either of the following two approaches:

Ordinary oral method: take 1500-2000 IU of vitamin A daily until the serum vitamin A level reaches normal;

High-dose surprise method: take vitamin A orally twice within a year, 100,000 to 200,000 IU each time, with an interval of 6 months. During this period, no other vitamin A preparations should be taken. (Should be carried out under the guidance of professional physicians from regular medical institutions)

Prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency

·

It is recommended that newborns should start supplementing vitamin D as soon as possible after birth (generally after 2 weeks), at 400-800 IU per day, and continue until at least 3 years old.

·

It is recommended to take the baby to outdoor activities as early as possible, and gradually reach 1-2 hours a day, with scattered light as the best, bare skin, no glass blocking, babies under 6 months should avoid direct sunlight. Children should pay attention to sun protection when they are outdoors to prevent skin burns.

·

Eat more calcium-rich foods, such as milk, milk products, soy products, seafood, etc.

·

Children with recurrent respiratory tract infection, children with diarrhea, children with iron deficiency anemia and high risk of iron deficiency, and malnourished children should be supplemented with vitamin D400-800IU/d daily to promote disease recovery and improve immunity. 

·

Children with vitamin D deficiency are recommended to take higher oral doses of treatment, vitamin D 2000IU/d is the minimum therapeutic dose, emphasizing calcium supplementation at the same time, and the course of treatment is at least 3 months.

When oral administration is difficult or diarrhea affects absorption, intramuscular injection of 150,000 to 300,000 IU of vitamin D preparations can be given once, and other vitamin D preparations should be stopped for 1 month. Follow-up visits should be made after 1 month of medication. (Should be carried out under the guidance of professional physicians from regular medical institutions)

Is long-term supplementation toxic?

At present, the occurrence of vitamin A poisoning in domestic reports is mostly caused by eating a large amount of animal livers (dog liver, carp liver) at one time or accidentally taking large doses of vitamin A preparations (more than 300,000 IU ≈ 150 tablets of 2000 IU vitamin A). Some cases are caused by long-term intake of excessive vitamin A preparations without following the doctor’s advice.

The common situation of vitamin D poisoning is that parents fail to fully understand the correct dosage and course of treatment of vitamin D preparations, and give children long-term overdose. Infants and young children take 20,000 to 50,000 IU per day for several weeks or months, which can cause poisoning. Some children are sensitive to vitamin D. If they take vitamin D4000IU per day (equivalent to 10 400IU vitamin D tablets per day), poisoning symptoms may also appear after 1 to 3 months.

Therefore, it is very safe and necessary to supplement vitamin A and vitamin D according to preventive dose or therapeutic dose. At the same time, supplementing vitamin A and vitamin D can play a better joint role in children’s immune function, bone development, and prevention of anemia.