There were yellow jackets in the Qing Dynasty, but what did the Tang, Song and Ming Dynasties have? Explain in detail the ancient conferment system!

As a kind of political behavior in feudal society, rewards were an important means for the emperor to control his subjects. The objects of rewards were extremely wide, including not only those relatives and relatives who had blood ties, but also civil servants and generals who had made great contributions, and even Some common people who are active in production can also receive rewards.

The content of rewards is all-encompassing, including giving gold and silver coins, items, house land, giving names, giving family temples, giving posthumous titles, etc. Among the many reward items, there is a category of chapter clothing, which is clothing and decorations, the most famous of which is the yellow mandarin jacket of the Qing Dynasty.

Yellow Jackets of the Qing Dynasty

The yellow mandarin jacket, as the name suggests, is a yellow mandarin jacket. As we all know, the mandarin jacket is the traditional clothing of the Jurchen people in the Manchu and Qing Dynasties. On the outside of the long gown, there is a short gown that is as long as the crotch and has sleeves that reach the elbow. The clothes are short for the convenience of riding horses, and the short sleeves are for the convenience of archery, so they are called “mandarin jackets”.

Therefore, the only difference of the yellow mandarin jacket lies in the yellow color. Yellow has symbolized monarchy since ancient times. In the Zhou Dynasty, yellow already represented the emperor. Therefore, to a certain extent, the yellow mandarin jacket represents the emperor’s presence. I think Nian Gengyao was demoted to 18 ranks and became a guard of Hangzhou city without official status. However, he was still able to look at people with his nostrils while wearing a yellow mandarin jacket.

There are two types of yellow jackets, one is “official jackets”. The emperor of the Qing Dynasty had many “inner ministers” and “imperial guards” on tour. All of these people had to wear “collar jackets”. The gowns are all made of bright yellow silk or yarn, without patterns and colored sleeves. The “work coat” they wear is called “Shiren mandarin coat”, and in Manchurian it is also called “Balshan coat”. To put it more simply, this kind of yellow mandarin jacket is the general clothing of the emperor’s servants. It can be worn without the emperor’s approval. Waiting for the guards to be upgraded to new men, the year of December is the year of writing to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and… a yellow mandarin coat will be given to him.”

The other is “reward wearing the yellow mantle”, which is different from the “job mantle”. The latter is worn because of the job relationship. If the job is dismissed, if you don’t serve as an imperial guard or minister of the interior, you can no longer wear the yellow mantle. The “Yellow Jacket” has no such restrictions, and it can be worn on all solemn occasions.

There are two kinds of “rewards for wearing yellow jackets”. One is given during hunting. Before Xianfeng, the Qing court held the “Mulan Autumn Siege” every year for 20 days. At this time, those who shot deer during hunting, or won the championship in archery competitions during hunting, generally received imperial gifts. Yellow jacket. However, this kind of yellow jacket is only allowed to be worn during sieges or martial arts competitions, and cannot be worn at ordinary times. Violators will be punished as coveting imperial power.

There is another kind that is the real “yellow mandarin jacket reward”. This kind of yellow mandarin jacket is mainly used to reward senior generals with meritorious service, and sometimes it is also given to civilian officials who command troops. Whatever you get, you can wear anytime. However, this kind of yellow jacket was rarely seen before Daoguang. “Donghualu” records that in the 41st year of Qianlong, the method of rewarding merits listed has not yet mentioned the yellow jacket.

Before the emergence of this kind of imperial yellow jacket, the methods used by the Qing court to win over warriors were nothing more than “Gabatuluyong”, “rewarding wearing flower feathers”, “rewarding world positions” and so on. Although these practices make warriors feel more honored, compared with the yellow jacket given by the emperor, they end up lacking the feeling of “suddenly becoming a confidant”. Therefore, as soon as this kind of yellow mandarin jacket was introduced, it was considered a thing of supreme glory.

And those who wear yellow jackets can also be recorded in the annals of history. According to the regulations of the Qing Dynasty, when necessary, people wearing yellow mandarin jackets can see the three ranks of officials.

During the Qianlong period, Fu Heng made great achievements repeatedly. It can be said that he was the person who won the most yellow jackets in history, and he was known as the “Victory Jacket”.

But if you want to talk about the yellow jacket that is the most popular in the Qing Dynasty, of course it must be the one of Li Hongzhang.

According to historical records, in 1895, Li Hongzhang negotiated in Japan. When he returned to the post house, he was stabbed by the Japanese ronin Toyotaro Koyama, shot in the face, and his yellow jacket was stained with blood.

In his confusion, Li Hongzhang still did not forget to tell his attendants to keep the bloody yellow jacket and not to wash off the blood. After giving instructions, he sighed, “This blood can serve the country.”

But later, due to the Tianping Heavenly Kingdom Movement, Cixi rewarded meritorious ministers, and basically gave yellow jackets, so when Cixi came to power, the yellow jackets were already flooded. Those who have won the yellow mandarin jacket, even those of very low rank can get it.

According to the standard that things are rare and expensive, the yellow mandarin jacket in the late Qing Dynasty can no longer represent a prominent status and a symbol of glory.

Flying Fish Clothes of the Ming Dynasty

When it comes to flying fish suits, the first thing that comes to mind is Jin Yiwei. In fact, Jin Yiwei is not the only one who can wear flying fish suits.

Flying fish clothing is the regular clothing of Jinyiwei and eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty, and it is also one of the bestowed clothes of the Ming Dynasty. As long as it is gifted by the emperor, all civil and military officials, and even ordinary people can wear it.

There are flying fish patterns with four claws on the flying fish clothes. The flying fish pattern is not a flying fish, but an animal with a dragon head and a fish body. It is a creature imagined by the emperor. “Flying fish pythons also have two horns. The so-called flying fish , it is in the shape of a python with fins and tails added, not in the shape of a flying fish.”

According to historical records, Zhu Yuanzhang often rewarded some generals with flying fish uniforms. Although the flying fish uniforms used as rewards have no special standard except flying fish, they are still a supreme honor.

Therefore, in the middle of the Ming Dynasty, because there was no unified regulation of flying fish suits, no special production organization, and no identification system to supervise them, many powerful people began to wear flying fish suits privately, and some even made flying fish suits Like boa robes, the imperial court strictly controlled them for another hundred and eight years. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, the trend of extravagance rose again. At this time, the Ming Dynasty was unable to control this kind of demand from the people, and the flying fish suits began to flood again.

In addition to the flying fish suit, there were several more precious gifts in the Ming Dynasty:

The first type is the python suit, “The python suit is like a dragon’s suit, which is similar to the imperial robe worn by the Supreme Being, but with one claw and ear missing.”

In the Ming Dynasty, not only the relatives of the emperor and the princes of the opposite sex could wear python suits, the commanders of Jinyiwei, important officials appreciated by the emperor, and even some eunuchs who served the emperor had the opportunity to get python suits. Of course, those who are eligible to wear python suits , must be a person trusted by the emperor, and must also be bestowed by the emperor himself.

For example, Luo Furen, a scholar of the Hongwu Dynasty, was given a python suit. According to historical records, he should be the first person to be given a python suit in the Ming Dynasty. In addition, Liu Jian, Li Dongyang, Xu Jie, Zhang Juzheng and other famous cabinet ministers who are familiar to everyone have all been awarded python clothes. In addition, since the 15th year of Yongle, python clothes have been given to the leaders of the vassal states or the northern tribes, and there were similar gifts in the Zhengtong period. However, this is not mandatory, in other words, not all “foreign heads of state” or tribal chiefs can obtain such gifts.

The other is the more rare bullfighting suit.

Bullfighting clothes are not embroidered with cow patterns on the clothes, but are similar to the dragon gowns often worn by emperors. “Pytha-headed bull horns”. Bullfighting clothes are not easy to grant. Generally, they are bestowed on those who have made special contributions. Therefore, in addition to the python suit, it is another high-grade exclusive clothing, which can only be worn by first-rank ministers in the court. “History of the Ming Dynasty Yufu Zhi III” records that bullfighting suits, python suits, and flying fish suits are not included in the official uniform system, but the special rewards given by eunuchs and ministers in the Ming Dynasty.

Song Dynasty goldfish bag

Before the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the color of official uniforms was not customized. For example, the Qin Dynasty was still black, so the official uniforms were generally black, and the decorations on court halls were also dominated by black. Even the military flags of the Qin Dynasty were black. At the beginning of the Han Dynasty, the Qin system was adopted, and black was preferred, so the official uniforms were all black. Later, a theory of five elements came out, which determined that the national virtue of the Han Dynasty was fire and red, so in the old Three Kingdoms, senior officials also wore red court clothes, but this was not custom-made. In many cases, the Han Dynasty, especially the early Eastern Han Dynasty In the middle period, the color of court clothes was changed according to the seasons.

During the reign of Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty, purple clothes, scarlet clothes, green clothes, and blue clothes were determined to be official uniforms, and they became custom-made in Tang Dynasty. In the early Song Dynasty, following the system of the Sui and Tang Dynasties, it was stipulated that officials up to the fourth rank should wear purple clothes, and those up to the sixth rank should wear scarlet clothes.

The objects bestowed by the emperors of the Song Dynasty were those with low official rank who could not wear purple or scarlet clothes. The imperial court specially bestowed purple and scarlet clothes, together with corresponding gold and silver fish bags, as a token of favor.

In the Song Dynasty, Fufu was mainly based on merit and age. Credit is easy to understand, but age is unique to the Song Dynasty. For example, Song Huizong and Gaozong both held activities to give scarlet clothes to people with long life.

The rewards of purple and scarlet clothes in the Song Dynasty were small at first, mainly for individual ministers. Later, the team of rewards gradually expanded, so that during the Song Zhezong period, there were “extremely many officials in purple and red clothes.”

In addition, the Song Dynasty also rewarded fish bags and leather belts.

In the beginning, the fish bag was just a sign to prohibit entry and exit from the palace. Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty stipulated that officials wearing purple and scarlet clothes must wear fish bags, so the fish bags became part of the imperial clothing system. In the Song Dynasty, fish symbols were no longer placed in the fish bags, but the bags were decorated with gold and silver in the shape of fish, and hung behind the official uniforms to show respect and inferiority.

Fish bags are generally made of gold and silver, but also made of jade. The purple clothes with goldfish bags are called “Jinzi”, and the scarlet clothes with silver fish bags are called “Yinfei”. Once the officials are given fish bags, they will be very honored. For example, Su Dongpo was given a silver fish bag when he was appointed as a comfort envoy on Dingzhou Road. He often wears it by his side because of his low-key nature.

However, the Song Dynasty was not too strict with the supervision of the conferment system. Many officials often borrowed higher-level uniforms than before when they went abroad to serve as envoys or as envoys. glory.

The leather belt system of the Song Dynasty is very detailed and specific. There are grades of jade belts, gold belts, silver belts, and rhinoceros belts. The lower grades also include copper, iron, horn, stone, and black jade, all of which are carved with floral patterns according to regulations. .

In the Song Dynasty, jade belts were only allowed to be worn by officials of the third grade or above, and a special permit was required to wear them on official uniforms. Most of the jade belts in the Song Dynasty were rewarded to the princes of the royal family and people of high merit. There are many types of gold belts, while silver belts are more widely rewarded because of their low production cost. As for the more expensive Tongtian rhinoceros belt, it is generally only given to real high-ranking officials and dignitaries.

The Clothing System of the Tang Dynasty

At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, the system was not complete, and the costumes of the chariots still followed the old system of the Sui Dynasty. It was not until Emperor Gaozu Wude issued an order to adjust the clothes and clothes in the fourth year. In the system, among them, the Zifei uniform worn with fish (turtle) bags of the fifth rank or above is the uniform, which is a symbol of power and status. Therefore, the conferments—the purple concubine uniforms, jade and gold belts, fish (turtle) bags, etc. bestowed by the emperor on officials attracted the attention of the time.

During the reign of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty, due to disorderly dresses, hundreds of officials and commoners often did not follow the rules, so it was reiterated twice: Civil and military officials of the third rank and above wear purple with gold and jade belts; fourth ranks wear dark crimson and gold belts; Green, with a silver belt; the eighth rank wears dark green, and the ninth rank wears light green, with a stone belt.

The system of matching fish bags has been formed in the Sui Dynasty. For example, in the ninth year of Kaihuang, it was stipulated that copper fish charms should be provided for Beijing officials above the fifth rank. The Tang Dynasty experienced major changes: in the first year of Wude, the copper fish talisman was changed to a silver fish talisman; In the period of Empress Wu, the scope of Peiyu was expanded to the governors of the local states, and because the surname “Wu” was consistent with “Xuanwu”, the Peiyu was changed to Peigui, and it was first stipulated that the turtles should be decorated with gold, silver and copper according to different grades. Gold for the third grade, silver for the fourth grade, and copper for the fifth grade; Tang Zhongzong resumed wearing fish bags, and formally connected the fish bags with the color of the clothes, “the one who wears purple wears gold, and the one who wears purple wears silver.”; Xuanzong For the first time, North Korea expanded the time frame to lifelong peyote.

At this point, “those who become officials will wear fish for life, and all officials who reward crimson must also have fish bags.” The system of official uniforms has been formally established.

However, since there is no strict assessment procedure for giving and serving, it is completely determined by the emperor’s personal subjective will. People don’t think it’s expensive to take too much food.”

Before the Sui and Tang Dynasties, there was no such thing as a conferment, but when the nobles died loyally, the royal family gave corresponding clothing rewards. For example, “Hanshu·Huo Guang Biography” contains: “Guangxi, the empress dowager came to the funeral in person.  … …give money, cotton wool, embroidered quilts and a hundred collars, fifty boxes of clothes, and pearls and jade clothes.” Another example is the “Book of the Later Han·Zheng Junzhuan” record: “Begging for bones with illness,…returning, because he was sick, the emperor Clothes and crowns.”

At this time, the living have no chance to wear the clothes!