In 1189 A.D., after Borjijin Temujin of the Mongolian Qiyan tribe was elected as the Khan of his tribe, he led the warriors of the Qiyan tribe to fight in the east and west, and fought in the south and north. They were basically unified in 1204. Mongolian ministries.
In 1206, Temujin, who stood on the horse and led the group, was honored as the Great Khan of Mongolia-Genghis Khan. Thus, the powerful Mongolian regime was born.
Genghis Khan Temujin (Portrait)
Following this, Genghis Khan’s iron cavalry began a journey to gallop the world, and first set foot on the land of the Xixia Dynasty founded by the party member Yuan Hao. At this time, Xixia is in an era of turning from prosperity to decline.
In the autumn of 1207, the Mongolian army conquered the city of Wulahai in Xixia. In 1209, Genghis Khan invaded Xixia again from Heishui City. At that time, the Xixia people who could not stop the powerful offensive of the Mongolian army were forced to make peace, and soon the Uighurs in eastern Xinjiang surrendered to Mongolia.
Eighteen years later, in the spring of 1227, the Mongols besieged Zhongxing Mansion in Xixia. In July of this year, Genghis Khan died of illness in the army. His fourth son Tuo Lei was ordered to supervise the country and commanded the army to completely end the existence of Xixia.
Torpedo on the battlefield (portrait)
In the second year of forced surrender to Xixia, in 1210 AD, Genghis Khan led the Mongolian army and rushed to the east to attack the Jin Kingdom established by the Jurchen Wanyan family.
Later, after many fierce and cruel battles such as the Battle of Wushabao, the Battle of Huihebao, the Battle of Liaodong, the Battle of Qingyang, the Battle of Weizhou, the Battle of Bianjing, and the Battle of Caizhou, Genghis Khan’s The third son Wokuotai Khan eliminated the Jin Dynasty in 1234.
While conquering Xixia and Jin Kingdoms, the Mongols also marched westward, occupying the old land of western Liaoning in 1218, and became a neighboring country with Khwarazm, a major Central Asian country (across today’s Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan).
From 1219 to 1224, Genghis Khan made another large-scale westward expedition. First conquered Khwarazm; then marched eastward and crossed the Indus River; then swung southwest to the lower reaches of the Tigris River; then entered Eastern Europe and occupied the eastern and southern regions of Russia.
The Mongolian army invaded Russia (portrait)
In 1229 A.D., after Wo Kuotai (reigned from 1229 to 1241) succeeded the Great Khan, he “sent the kings Batu, the prince Guiyou, and the emperor’s nephew Mengge to conquer the Western Regions, the prince Kuoduan to conquer Qin and Gong, and the prince Qu It was as far as Hu Tuhu conquered the Song Dynasty, and the Tang Dynasty conquered Korea.” The territory of the Mongolian regime soon extended to southwestern Asia and Eastern Europe.
From 1229 to 1243, Mongol armies invaded Southwest Asia, ravaging what is today Iran and most of Asia Minor.
From 1235 to 1242, Batu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, Guiyou, the eldest son of Okuotai, and Mengge, the eldest son of Tuolei, led an army westward and conquered Russia. At that time, Russia was in the era of division of the feudal princes, unable to resist the Mongolian cavalry.
Batu West Expedition (Portrait)
After that, the Mongolian army continued to march westward, invading Poland, Hungary and other countries. After the attack on the Czech Republic was frustrated, it retreated to the southern Russian grassland. During this period, the forward troops of the Mongols reached the territory of Venice (now the Italian city).
When Tuolei’s son Meng Ge (reigned from 1251 to 1259) was the Great Khan of Mongolia, he sent Hulagu (the third son of Tuolei) to lead an army to attack the countries in West Asia, conquered the southwest of the Caspian Sea and the eastern Mediterranean, and destroyed the Reported to the Eastern Great Food Empire in Baghdad (now the capital of Iraq), and penetrated into the Arabian Peninsula.
At the same time as Batu’s western expedition, Meng Ge wiped out the two regimes of Tubo and Dali in the southwest of my country from 1252 to 1253, forming a three-sided encirclement of the Southern Song Dynasty.
In 1268, Yuan Shizu Kublai Khan opened the prelude to the war against Song Dynasty. In 1273, Xiangyang was captured; in 1276, Lin’an was captured. In 1279, the Mongolian army advanced to Guangdong and Fujian, destroying the Southern Song Dynasty.
Kublai Khan (Portrait)
In short, from Genghis Khan Temujin to Yuan Shizu Kublai Khan (reigned from 1260 to 1294), the Mongolian army conquered Europe, West Asia, and Southwest Asia, destroyed Xixia, Jin, and Southern Song successively, and subjugated Goryeo.
In addition, in 1257, northern Vietnam was conquered; in 1282, Champa was conquered (located in the southeast of the Indochina Peninsula); in 1287, Burma was conquered; in 1292, the island of Java (now in Indonesia) was conquered, and Nanyang countries were recruited to pay tribute.
The main reasons why the Mongols were able to conquer such a vast area are:
At that time, the Mongols were in the stage of social development where plundering wars was their legitimate occupation. They have a powerful army composed of Mongolian knights trained from long-term hunting life.
This is an extremely brave army organized by clan kinship and under the command of the outstanding military leader Genghis Khan.
Brave and Powerful Mongolian Cavalry (Portrait)
They use the common distribution of plunder as a call to inspire soldiers to fight bravely; they turn the conquered tribes into auxiliary armed forces for conquest at any time in order to continuously strengthen themselves.
Later, they learned firearms making and siege tactics from China and the Western Regions, which greatly enhanced their offensive and defensive capabilities.
At that time, some feudal countries in Asia and Eastern Europe surrounding the Mongolian settlements were in the stage of division and decline, especially when the ruling group was extremely corrupt and internal conflicts and struggles were very sharp.
Therefore, although they have a relatively well-equipped army, they cannot concentrate on resisting the Mongolian cavalry, which brings an excellent opportunity for the Mongols to conquer the world!
Main references: “History of the Yuan Dynasty”, “History of the Song Dynasty”