Healthy life丨How to exercise for osteoporosis patients, experts tell you…

In addition to paying attention to diet or calcium supplements to prevent osteoporosis, what problems should we pay attention to in our daily life?

Appropriate exercise is also recommended. Lack of exercise can easily lead to muscle atrophy and bone loss, but regular exercise stimulation can maintain normal bone density and bone strength. Especially in outdoor activities in the sun, sunlight can also promote the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin and help the absorption of calcium. The movement consists of three parts, which we call the “movement trilogy”.

The first part is pre-exercise assessment: it mainly includes the assessment of five physical functions, including pain assessment, joint range of motion, muscle strength, balance function, and mental state. These are recommended for systematic assessment by professionals. At the same time, the specific values ​​of bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density should be determined before exercise to evaluate the degree of osteoporosis. It is necessary to fully consider and evaluate a series of chronic respiratory diseases, heart diseases, rheumatic immune system diseases, etc. that cannot be fully tolerated for a long time. For chronic diseases of strenuous exercise, comprehensively assess the patient’s situation to formulate an individualized exercise prescription. It is recommended that patients go to the hospital for evaluation.

The second part is the choice of exercise mode: one of the most common forms of exercise for elderly friends is walking. This exercise is also very popular with the elderly because it is harmless, self-management, and easy to implement. Walking is good for the lumbar spine or femur. The neck was not significantly affected. In addition, aerobic exercise such as jogging, swimming, cycling (fixation), and Tai Chi can limit the decrease in bone mineral density, and it is also recommended for elderly patients to adhere to it for a long time. Of course, elderly and frail patients with osteoporosis must decide on the way and intensity of exercise according to their own conditions and venue conditions.

The third part is the post-exercise assessment: in clinical practice, we first prescribe the patient’s muscle strength, range of motion, balance, gait, cardiorespiratory function, comorbidities, bone mineral density, history of fractures, and risk of falling. Individualized exercise prescription for the elderly and patients with osteoporosis. After exercising for a period of time, go to the hospital for evaluation to see if the patient’s exercise prescription is suitable.

Can people with osteoporosis do strength training?

People with osteoporosis should also perform strength and resistance exercises, which can indirectly stimulate the bones. Strength exercises determine the response of joints and the enhancement of muscles, which are important for bone density, lumbar spine and femoral neck. clinical benefit.

In addition, the combination of different exercises (aerobics, plyometrics, progressive resistance, balance, and dance) had a significant effect on BMD in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and greater trochanter, with the greatest benefit being the spine.

How to control the duration and intensity of exercise?

Exercise time and frequency: It is recommended that elderly patients should at least perform moderate-intensity physical activity for a total of about 150 minutes to 300 minutes per week, or about 75 minutes to 150 minutes of high-intensity physical activity per week, or moderate physical activity. A combination of both intensity and high-intensity activities to accomplish an equal amount of physical activity. On the premise of ensuring the above amount of exercise, you can complete it multiple times within a week according to your personal time and physical condition. Exercising at least 3 days a week not only benefits your body, it also prevents injury.

In the grasp of exercise intensity: for example, the intensity of aerobic exercise is expressed in two ways: absolute intensity and relative intensity. Absolute intensity refers to the energy and absolute physical load expended during activity without considering the physiological endurance capacity of people such as cardiopulmonary function. Relative intensity is the degree of effort required to do an activity, which belongs to the category of physiological intensity, and more considers the response and tolerance of individual physiological conditions during physical activity. Older people are mostly measured using relative intensity. Relative intensity is measured using self-perceived exercise intensity, measured on a scale of 0 to 10. When using relative intensity, attention should be paid to the impact of physical activity on heart rate and respiration, and the intensity of physical activity should be judged by the degree of individual subjective exertion and fatigue. Grade 0: resting state; Grade 1-2: feeling weak or very weak; Grade 3-4: feeling mild; Grade 5-6: moderate; Grade 7-8: feeling tired; Grade 9-10: very tired. On a scale of 0 to 10, moderate-intensity activity is a level 5 or 6. Of course, we recommend relatively moderate-intensity exercise for older patients. In general, moderate-intensity exercise is judged by being able to speak but not sing.

How should older osteoporosis patients choose exercise methods?

At present, in special populations, such as elderly patients, daily activities combined with low-intensity aerobic exercise are recommended; for patients with chronic low back pain, exercise that does not increase the load on the spine and forward flexion is recommended.

Of course, for friends who are not very old, it is best to ensure that about half an hour of aerobic exercise and weight-bearing training every day, such as walking, fitness running, and Taijiquan, under the guidance of a professional rehabilitation specialist when you find that you have osteoporosis. Be careful to avoid actions that can cause vertebral compression, such as skipping rope and sit-ups.

When exercising, you need to choose the way, amount and frequency of exercise according to your body’s health and body capacity. In addition, even friends who are bedridden should often allow their family members to push themselves outdoors, bask in the sun, and passively move and exercise their limbs with the help of family members.

For healthy people, if you want to stay away from osteoporosis, it is recommended to do moderate-intensity exercise at least 5 days a week, such as running, fitness equipment, playing ball, cycling, etc., and the cumulative time is more than 150 minutes.